Alrighty, time for another vocab. post! Now last time I incorporated other classes vocab. words into the post and it turned out to be a great idea. Not only are we fulfilling our English blog, but now we’re boosting our leaning in other classes as well. If you remember last time, I did some music theory vocab., which wasn't very useful except for Steedman and I. Now this time I decided to broaden the audience and do a post on science vocabulary terms. In science, we are learning about atomic structure and the atom, and there are a whole slew of terms that are all similar to each other and can be confusing if you don't know them well. We are also learning about ground water, so there might be a couple terms for that as well. So let's get right into it!
Element: A chemical substance that is only made up of atoms with the same number of protons
Atom: The smallest unit of an element that still retains the properties of the element
Atomic Number: The number of protons of an element (The signature of the element)
Mass Number: The number of neutrons plus the number of protons. It is the mass of a particular isotope, and it is the weight of the nucleus
Atomic Mass: (aka Atomic Weight) The weighted average of all the isotope masses for an element
Isotope: Variation of an element because it has a different number of neutrons, and therefore a slightly different mass
Ions: Atoms with charge (The protons don't equal the electrons)
Cation (Pronounced cat ion): An atom with a positive charge
Anion (Pronounced an ion): An atom with a negative charge
Valence Electrons: The number of electrons in the outermost shell
Groundwater: Water under the surface of the Earth
Aquifer: Groundwater in enough volume that humans can use it
Unsaturated Zone: The area where the pore space is filled with air and water
Saturated Zone: The area where the pore space is filled with just water
Water Table: The top of the saturated zone
Recharge: When water is added to the groundwater system (Makes water table rise)
Discharge: When water is removed from the groundwater system (Makes water table fall)
That was a lot of terms! I think there were 17 in all. Similarly to the last post, let's incorporate some English into this post by writing sentences using these words in an infinitive phrase. An infinitive phrase is the word “to” plus a verb. A couple examples of infinitive phrases are ‘to swim’, ‘to cook’, ‘to walk’ etc.. After that mini grammar lesson, let's get on with the sentences.
- Scientists have to identify certain elements in chemical reactions.
- The concept of the atom was first invented by the Greeks, who were trying to cut objects down into the smallest possible size.
- Without scientific equipment, it is impossible to find the atomic number of an atom unless you memorize it.
- To measure the mass number, you add up an atom’s protons and neutrons.
- In order to calculate the atomic mass, you must know how common each isotope is of that atom.
- If scientists were to change the number of neutrons in an atom, they would be creating an isotope.
- It is relatively straightforward to find an ion’s charge- each proton and electron cancel out until you are left with just protons or electrons.
- Cation’s are always trying to be positive. (Sorry) :)
- Anions don't like to be associated with cations.
- Trying to draw a Bohr model is hard, but trying to find the valence electrons are easy.
- People build wells to draw from the groundwater reserves.
- Aquifers need to hold enough water in order to be used for practical uses.
- To get to the saturated zone, you must first go through the unsaturated zone.
- Scientists must analyze well’s water tables, in order to prepare for events such as droughts or floods.
- Precipitation helps to fill the water table; this is also known as recharge.
- Drilling wells is a way to drain the water table; this is also known is discharge.
Alrighty. Hopefully you guys have a better understanding of infinitive phrases now, and you also got to learn some science vocab. As always, stay tuned for the next post!
- Jack Goodenough